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White Americans are Americans who are considered or reported as White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa."[2] Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component,[3] the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is often used interchangeably with "White", although the terms are not synonymous.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

The largest ancestries of American Whites are: German Americans (16.5%), Irish Americans (11.9%), English Americans (9.2%), Italian Americans (5.8%), French Americans (4%), Polish Americans (3%), Scottish Americans (1.9%), Scotch-Irish Americans (1.7%), Dutch Americans (1.6%), Norwegian Americans (1.5%), and Swedish Americans (1.4%).[10][11][12] However, the English-Americans and British-Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (6.9%), due to the length of time they have inhabited America.[6][7][8][9]

Whites (including Hispanics who identify as White) constitute the majority, with a total of about 246,660,710, or 77.35% of the population as of 2014. Non-Hispanic Whites totaled about 197,870,516, or 62.06% of the U.S. population.

Historical and present definitions

Definitions of who is "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States.

Current U.S. Census definition

The term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria. The 2000 U.S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."[13]

The Census question on race lists the categories White or European AmericanBlack or African AmericanAmerican Indian and Alaska NativeNative Hawaiian or Other Pacific IslanderAsian, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial and\or ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows:

"White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race(s) as "White" or reported entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan or Caucasian.[2]

In U.S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino, which was introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity, separate and independent of race.[14][15] Hispanic and Latino Americans as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country.[16][17]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Spanishhispanos[isˈpanos]) are people in the United States who are descendants of the Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries of Hispanic America and Spain.[6][7][8] It is the largest population of Latino Americans and Hispanics outside of Latin America.[9] More generally, it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry.[10][11][12][13] For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire ("Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban") as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: SpanishArgentineCubanColombianPuerto RicanDominicanMexicanCosta RicanGuatemalanHonduranNicaraguanPanamanianSalvadoranBolivianChileanEcuadorianParaguayanPeruvianUruguayan, and Venezuelan. Other U.S. government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term, including Brazilians and other Portuguese-speaking groups. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably.[14]

"Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.[15][16][17][18] As the only specifically designated category of ethnicity in the United States (other than non-Hispanic/Latino)[clarification needed], Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of MexicanPuerto RicanCubanSalvadoranDominicanGuatemalan, or Colombian origin. The predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies widely in different locations across the country.[16][19][20][21][22]

Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans.[23]Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic Whites (a group which, like Hispanics and Latinos, is composed of dozens of sub-groups of differing national origin).[24]

Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously[25][26][27][28] since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry.[29][30][31][32] Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida. Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York City metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states.[2]

A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, and 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest, especially those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry, while self-described Latinos from the South, Midwest, and Atlantic Coast had the highest mean levels of African ancestry.[33]

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The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (GOP). Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.[14]

The Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while—especially in the rural Southpopulism was its leading characteristic. In 1912Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party, leading to a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party and Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has also promoted a social liberal platform,[4] supporting social justice.[15]

Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists,[7] with a smaller minority of conservative Democrats. The party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.[16] It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy.[17] These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunityconsumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy.[16][18] The party has united with smaller liberal regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota.

Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings. The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.[19][20][21] After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. Racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S., such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Arabic Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party, giving the Democratic Party its current membership lead over the Republicans.

Fifteen Democrats have served as President under 16 administrations: the first was seventh President Andrew Jackson, who served from 1829 to 1837; Grover Cleveland served two nonconsecutive terms from 1885 to 1889 and 1893 to 1897; and is thus counted twice (as the 22nd and 24th President). The most recent was the 44th President Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017.

In the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats have become the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. The party also holds a minority of governorships (15/50) and state legislatures (full control of 12/50, split control of six others), though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York CityLos AngelesChicagoHouston and Washington, D.C.

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Americans are citizens of the United States of America.[48] The country is home to people of many different national origins. As a result, Americans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance.[48] Although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may also claim an American identity.[49]

English-speakers, and even speakers of many other languages, typically use the term "American" to exclusively mean people of the United States; this developed from its original use to differentiate English people of the American colonies from English people of England.[50] The word "American" can also refer to people from the Americas in general.[51] See Names for United States citizens.

Overview

The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or were brought as slaveswithin the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from HawaiiPuerto RicoGuam, and the Philippine Islands who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century,[52] and American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islandsand Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.[53]

Despite its multi-ethnic composition,[54][55] the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can also be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culturelargely derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists, settlers, and immigrants.[54] It also includes influences of African-American culture.[56] Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from AsiaAfrica, and Latin America has also had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics.[54]

In addition to the United States, Americans and people of American descent can be found internationally. As many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, and make up the American diaspora.[57][58][59]

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The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution. Founded by anti-slavery activists, economic modernizers, ex Whigs and ex Free Soilers in 1854, the Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern states for most of the period between 1860 and 1932.[17]

The party has won 24 of the last 40 U.S. presidential elections and there have been a total of 19 Republican Presidents, the most from any one party. The first was 16th President Abraham Lincoln, who served from 1861 until his assassination in 1865; and the most recent being 45th and current president Donald Trump, who took office on January 20, 2017.

The Republican Party's current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' more progressive platform (also called modern liberalism). Its platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism,[6] a strong national defense, deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative and seeks to uphold traditional values based largely on Judeo-Christian ethics.[3] The GOP was strongly committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s, when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest. Since 1952, there has been a reversal against protectionism and the party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural districts in the North,[18][19] as well as from conservative Catholics,[20][21] Mormons[22] and Evangelicals nationwide.

As of 2017, the Republican Party was at its strongest position politically since 1928. In addition to holding the Presidency (Donald Trump), it controls majorities in both the House of Representativesand the Senate. The party also holds a majority of governorships (34/50) and state legislatures (full control of 32/50, split control of six others).[23]

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